Economic and Performance Comparisons for Aries 100 and Alternative Alkalis

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Comparison basisHydrated lime
calcium hydroxide
Soda ash
sodium carbonate
Caustic soda
sodium hydroxide
Aries 100
magnesium hydroxide
Product formpowder – Ca(OH)2 available as slurry to 35% solidspowder – Na2CO3 available as 15% solution50% solution – NaOH59% solids slurry – Mg(OH)2
Raw material cost (ton per ton basis)least expensiveabout half the cost of magnesium hydroxidefluctuates widely with supply; often more expensive than Mg(OH)2generally competitive with caustic soda; pricing consistent
Alkali requirement:
√ per ton H2SO41511 dry lb.2160 dry lb.1630 dry lb.1190 dry lb.
√ per ton HCl2032 dry lb.2900 dry lb.2190 dry lb.1600 dry lb.
√ per ton HNO31175 dry lb.1683 dry lb.1270 dry lb.921 dry lb.
Consumption vs. Mg(OH)227% more82% more37% more
Capital investmenthigh due to solids handling and slaking; also regular maintenance of system due to calcium depositsleast expensive; costs associated with solubilizing the powder, controlling foaming, and metals carryovercost associated with safety considerations; no agitated tank required; freeze protection needed for 50% causticagitated storage tank required
Residence timemoderately fast acting to complete neutralizationmoderately fast acting to complete neutralizationextremely fast acting to complete neutralizationmoderately fast acting to 95% of neutralization; more controllable process
Salt in effluent:
√ per ton H2SO43510 lb. (insoluble)2900 lb.2900 lb.2460 lb.
√ per ton HCl3040 lb.3210 lb.3210 lb.2610 lb.
√ per ton HNO32603 lb.2698 lb.2698 lb.2349 lb.
Maximum pH in overtreatment12>11149
Sludge producedheavy sludge containing calcium sulfate (gypsum) if neutralizing sulfuric acidhigh volume, gel-like with heavy metalshigh volume, gel-like with heavy metalsdense, low volume with heavy metals; easier to dewater
Safetymoderately hazardous materialmoderately hazardous materialhazardous material requiring rigorous safety proceduresnonhazardous material
Environmentalcan overshoot desired pHsodium ion dischargesodium ion discharge
can easily overshoot desired pH
buffers at pH 9

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